Assalamu’alaikum Warohmatullahi wabarokatuh
Ustaz good Sarwat Ahmad, may Allah’s grace and forgiveness is always devoted to you.
My friend was a state employee who obtain salary every month. Of salary, he issued a charity mall at 2, 5%, so the netused was 97, 5% of his salary. Having accumulated from the beginning he derives income, the value of the net salary, my friend has 1 housing unit (205 m2), an area of land (287 m2), a unit of the car, jewelry (above 80 grams) and saving money.
My question is:
1. Whether house, land, cars, jewelry and money savings are subject to zakat mall?
2. From someone I never get an answer that in the first year of ownership of property is not subject to zakat mal, but next year should be subject to zakat mal, are thus supposed to be?
3. How nishab for homes, land, cars and money savings?
Assalamu ‘alaikum warahmatullahi wabarakatuh,
Not all types of property required for excluded zakat. Based on the texts of the Qur’an and Sunnah, the scholars have devised criteria that must dizakati type of property. If a person does not have a property established criteria, then there is no obligation of zakat. Even though very high in nominal nialinya.
Because the finished size is not merely a nominal value of total assets owned yag, but the type and shape greatly affect the presence or absence of charitable obligations.
At least there are 5 main criteria that have been agreed upon by scholars, namely:
- The treasure is growing (an-name ‘)
- Property was owned in perfect (al-milkut-taam)
- Property that meets the minimum standards (nisab)
- Property had been owned for a certain period (haul)
- Treasures that have exceeded the basic requirements.
What Is a Growing Assets?
The first condition is that the treasure is a treasure that grows or can be grown, the treasure is not dead or not silent.
In our language today, the property was owned principally, but along with it, treasure it can provide income or profit for its owner. Among the examples of growing property included are:
- Money invested in a trade. Where the trade itself will benefit, while the money into his capital remained intact.
- Form of farm property, where over time, farmers will harvest the results of the planted seedlings. This growth will bear the consequences of the obligation of zakat.Meanwhile, when the plant’s seeds are not planted, then there will be no growth, then there is no obligation of zakat.
- Likewise, the property owned by a breeder, where initially he only had a calf, and then maintained in such a way that the calf grow into an adult cow. Dipelahara kid who later grew into kambin adults, chicks are raised and then grow into adult chickens. Here, clearly there is an element of growth. Or growth was not on her body, but the number, where the cattle bear children so the day the number grows to more and more. All of this growth phenomenon that requires charity.
Even the scholars say that cash is considered an asset that grows. Although the owners squelched it or store it in the closet. For the cash it has been shaped directly invested assets are prepared and screened as capital, anytime and anywhere.
In contrast to the wealth in the form of land or a house that is not fresh funds. Objects that can not be grown directly, except when rented. That’s why the scholars oblige zakah for cash, though kept by their owners.
While the home or vacant land owned but did not provide any revenue to its owner, it is not obligated zakat.
a. Zakat House and Land
If the house or land does not generate income, despite billions in value then there is no obligation to issue their zakat.Mengqiyaskan that such a house is an investment not appropriate, because each object has properties and characteristics of its own.
Jumhur scholars argued, one of which is also the opinion of Dr.Yusuf al-Qaradawi in his Kitabuz Zakah.
But when the house was used to find the money or provide income, eg rent, then exposed to charity tenancy. Paying zakat zakat as agriculture, where the pay zakat at harvest time (when receiving rent), without waiting for one haul (years).
Magnitude there are differences of opinion, some scholars say 5% or 10% of irrigated agriculture as zakat or not irrigated.Other scholars say enough Sebaigan 2, 5% only, as generally makes another charity.
b. Zakat Car
Similarly, charity car, basically not compulsory dizakati car unless it provides income to its owner. Perhaps because the rental or other things that bring wealth.
For cars, including property which is not growing, so there is no obligation to issue their zakat.
c. Zakat Jewelry
Only berbenda jewelry gold and silver are the obligatory zakat issued. That’s when you’ve owned for 1 year qamariyah least as much as 85 grams, not 80 grams. And one of the most important requirement, the gold was never charged for accessories or jewelry. Gold is just stored it.
While gold is worn, there is no zakat obligation upon it, despite heavy kilograms.
Diamonds, gems, stone, marble, diamonds and all kinds of jewelry than gold, even if its value exceeds the gold, there is no zakat obligation.
And Allaah knows best bishshawab, wassalamu alaykum warahmatullahi wabarakatuh,
Ahmad Sarwat , Lc.